Basic and Utility Algorithms#

The lenskit.algorithms.basic module contains baseline and utility algorithms for nonpersonalized recommendation and testing.

Random Item Recommendation#

The Random algorithm implements random-item recommendation.

class lenskit.algorithms.basic.Random(selector=None, rng_spec=None)#

Bases: Recommender

A random-item recommender.

selector#

Selects candidate items for recommendation. Default is UnratedItemCandidateSelector.

Type:

CandidateSelector

rng_spec#

Seed or random state for generating recommendations. Pass 'user' to deterministically derive per-user RNGS from the user IDs for reproducibility.

fit(ratings, **kwargs)#

Train a model using the specified ratings (or similar) data.

Parameters:
  • ratings (pandas.DataFrame) – The ratings data.

  • kwargs – Additional training data the algorithm may require. Algorithms should avoid using the same keyword arguments for different purposes, so that they can be more easily hybridized.

Returns:

The algorithm object.

recommend(user, n=None, candidates=None, ratings=None)#

Compute recommendations for a user.

Parameters:
  • user – the user ID

  • n (int) – the number of recommendations to produce (None for unlimited)

  • candidates (array-like) – The set of valid candidate items; if None, a default set will be used. For many algorithms, this is their CandidateSelector.

  • ratings (pandas.Series) – the user’s ratings (indexed by item id); if provided, they may be used to override or augment the model’s notion of a user’s preferences.

Returns:

a frame with an item column; if the recommender also produces scores, they will be in a score column.

Return type:

pandas.DataFrame

Unrated Item Candidate Selector#

UnratedItemCandidateSelector is a candidate selector that remembers items users have rated, and returns a candidate set consisting of all unrated items. It is the default candidate selector for TopN.

class lenskit.algorithms.basic.UnratedItemCandidateSelector#

Bases: CandidateSelector

CandidateSelector that selects items a user has not rated as candidates. When this selector is fit, it memorizes the rated items.

items_#

All known items.

Type:

pandas.core.indexes.base.Index

users_#

All known users.

Type:

pandas.core.indexes.base.Index

user_items_#

Items rated by each known user, as positions in the items index.

Type:

lenskit.data.matrix.CSRStructure

fit(ratings, **kwargs)#

Train a model using the specified ratings (or similar) data.

Parameters:
  • ratings (pandas.DataFrame) – The ratings data.

  • kwargs – Additional training data the algorithm may require. Algorithms should avoid using the same keyword arguments for different purposes, so that they can be more easily hybridized.

Returns:

The algorithm object.

candidates(user, ratings=None)#

Select candidates for the user.

Parameters:
  • user – The user key or ID.

  • ratings (pandas.Series or array-like) – Ratings or items to use instead of whatever ratings were memorized for this user. If a pandas.Series, the series index is used; if it is another array-like it is assumed to be an array of items.

Fallback Predictor#

The Fallback rating predictor is a simple hybrid that takes a list of composite algorithms, and uses the first one to return a result to predict the rating for each item.

A common case is to fill in with Bias when a primary predictor cannot score an item.

class lenskit.algorithms.basic.Fallback(algorithms, *others)#

Bases: Predictor

The Fallback algorithm predicts with its first component, uses the second to fill in missing values, and so forth.

fit(ratings, **kwargs)#

Train a model using the specified ratings (or similar) data.

Parameters:
  • ratings (pandas.DataFrame) – The ratings data.

  • kwargs – Additional training data the algorithm may require. Algorithms should avoid using the same keyword arguments for different purposes, so that they can be more easily hybridized.

Returns:

The algorithm object.

predict_for_user(user, items, ratings=None)#

Compute predictions for a user and items.

Parameters:
  • user – the user ID

  • items (array-like) – the items to predict

  • ratings (pandas.Series) – the user’s ratings (indexed by item id); if provided, they may be used to override or augment the model’s notion of a user’s preferences.

Returns:

scores for the items, indexed by item id.

Return type:

pandas.Series

Memorized Predictor#

The Memorized recommender is primarily useful for test cases. It memorizes a set of rating predictions and returns them.

class lenskit.algorithms.basic.Memorized(scores)#

Bases: Predictor

The memorized algorithm memorizes socres provided at construction time.

fit(*args, **kwargs)#

Train a model using the specified ratings (or similar) data.

Parameters:
  • ratings (pandas.DataFrame) – The ratings data.

  • kwargs – Additional training data the algorithm may require. Algorithms should avoid using the same keyword arguments for different purposes, so that they can be more easily hybridized.

Returns:

The algorithm object.

predict_for_user(user, items, ratings=None)#

Compute predictions for a user and items.

Parameters:
  • user – the user ID

  • items (array-like) – the items to predict

  • ratings (pandas.Series) – the user’s ratings (indexed by item id); if provided, they may be used to override or augment the model’s notion of a user’s preferences.

Returns:

scores for the items, indexed by item id.

Return type:

pandas.Series